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1. WO2018229085 - A MACHINE AND A METHOD FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS

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[ EN ]

Patent Claims

1. A machine for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects, the machine comprising:

a first source (11) of particles with mass emitting a first beam (Εχ); a first system of magnetic lenses (18) for determining divergence (a) and deflection of said beam (Ei); a first control signal (CTRL 1) which manages the first source (11) of particles with mass via a control unit (CT 1) and causes the creation of the said predetermined beam (Ei); a second source (12) of particles with mass emitting a second beam (E2); a second system of magnetic lenses (19) for determining divergence (β) and deflection of said second beam (E2); a second control signal (CTRL 2) which manages the second source (12) of particles with mass via a control unit (CT 2) and causes the creation of said predetermined beam (E2), a vacuum chamber (116);

characterised in that

the control signal (CTRL 1) for controlling the first source (11) and the control signal (CTRL 2) for controlling the second source (12) are mutually arranged in a timely manner and created in a way in which two or more predefined clusters (160,170) emitted from different sources (11,12) overlap in a predefined volumetric part of a printing space (2) of the machine (1) and in this way create a curved three-dimensional intersection volume (28) inside of which a melting volume (280) occurs where the sum of energies of the predefined individual clusters (160,170) exceeds the energy threshold required for melting of a powdered material (102) located in the melting volume (280), and said sum of energies therefore causes melting of the powdered material (102),

and further in that each particle source (11,12) is equipped with its own system of magnetic lenses (18,19) for managing divergence and deflection of said beams (E1;E2).

2. The machine according to claim 1, characterised in that the machine comprises more than two particle sources (11, 12, 61, 62, 63, 64), more than two control signals (CTRL 1, CTRL 2, CTRL 3,

CTRL 4, CTRL 5, CTRL 6) and more than two control units (CT 1, CT 2, CT 3, CT 4, CT 5, CT 6).

3. The machine according to claim 1, characterised in that the first source (11) and the second particle source (12) are spatially arranged so that a geometrical axes (13) of the first source (11) and a geometrical axes (14) of the second source (12) intersect at an intersection point (15) at an angle between 0-360 degrees, and that a distance (20) from the first source (11) to the intersection point (15) and distance (21) from the second source (12) to the intersection point (15) are in the range from 10 cm to 20m.

4. The machine according to Claim 2., characterised in that a plurality of particle sources (11, 12, 61, 62, 63, 64) is spatially arranged so that the geometrical axes of said sources (11, 12, 61, 62, 63, 64) intersect in an intersection point (15) or in a plurality of intersection points at angles between 0-360 degrees and that distances from all sources (11, 12, 61, 62, 63, 64) to the intersection point (15) or the plurality of intersection points are in the range from 10 cm to 20m.

5. The machine according to Claim l.or Claim 2., characterised in that the particles with mass emitted from sources (11, 12, 61, 62, 63, 64) are electrons.

6. The machine according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterised in that the spatial location of the intersection volume (28) is controlled with the use of time delays tf between at least two individual clusters emitted separately from at least two sources (11, 12).

7. The machine according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterised in that the size of the intersection volume (28) is controlled by modulating a divergence (a1;) of beam emitted from the first source (11), a divergence (a2) of beam emitted from the second source (12), a length (hi) of the individual cluster (160) emitted from the first source (11) and a length (L2) of the individual cluster (170) emitted from the second source (12).

8. The machine according to claim 1 and claim 3 or claim 2 and claim 4, characterised in that the individual intersection volume (28) can be assembled from plurality of smaller volumes; that the powdered material (102) is kept in a container (101) with a stopper (103) before printing and that the exit of said container (101) is equipped with an actuator (104) for the purpose of dispersing powdered material (102) and said stopper (103) is controlled with the control unit (CT CI) via control signal (CTRL CI); that one (11) or plurality of particle sources (12,61) is geared with a linear mechanisation (117) enabling movement of said sources (11,12,61) and/or circular mechanisation (118) enabling rotation of one (11) of said sources relative to the other said sources (12,61).

9. A machine for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects characterised in that powdered material (102) is transported to the melting area with the use of an magnetic field B created with a first winding (105) and a second winding (106).

10. The machine according to claim 9, characterised in that it comprises a plurality of windings (105, 106, 205, 206, 207, 208).

11. The machine according to claim 9 or claim 10, characterised in that the melting area is a melting volume (280) which has a curved surface.

12. The machine according to claim 11, characterised in that the melting volume (280) is inside the intersection volume (28) of at least two beams emitted from at least two spatially arranged sources

(11,12).

13. Machine for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects, characterised in that the powdered material (102) and/or melted powdered material is transported onto the already printed object part with an electrostatic pull between the powdered material (102) and already printed object part using a control signal (CTRL Fl) and a control unit (CT Fl) controlling a switch (112) for creating electric connection between conductive needle (115) and higher electric potential (W ) and a switch (113) for creating electric connection between conductive needle (115) and lower electric potential (W2).

14. Machine for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects, characterised in that excessive charge are removed from an already printed object part through a conductive needle (115) which is connected electrically to the surface of the already printed object part and controlled with a control unit (CT Fl) via a control signal (CTRL Fl).

15. Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects comprising the following steps: a print preparation (5) and a printing process (100) wherein during the print preparation (5) using a simulator (8) and based on print specifications (6) and machine specifications (7), a spatial division 50 of a digital file of the three-dimensional object (4) is conducted followed by creation of a control file (10) using a generator (9), said control file (10) managing all assembly part of the machine (1) with the use of dedicated control signals (CTRL 1-H) via control units (CT 1-H) for the purpose of gradual fabrication of the three-dimensional object (3), wherein final object is fabricated with gradual fabrication of individual constituent parts and with assembling of said constituent parts in a specific sequence until the final object is fabricated

characterised in that

an individual constituent part of final fabricated three-dimensional object is a three-dimensional print volume with an enclosed curved surface.

16. Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects including the process of melting a powdered material (102) with the use of kinetic energy of particles with mass, characterised in that the powdered material (102) is transported into a melting volume with the use of magnetic levitation achieved with a plurality of windings (105, 106) creating a magnetic field (B).

17. Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects including the process of melting a powdered material (102) with the use of kinetic energy of particles with mass, characterised in that the powdered material (102) is melted in a predetermined curved melting volume (280) which is inside the intersection volume (28) of beams emitted from a plurality of particle sources (11,12) wherein in the predetermined melting volume (280) the kinetic energy of particles emitted from a plurality of particle sources (11, 12) adds up and exceeds the threshold required to melt the material.

18. Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects including the process of melting a powdered material (102) with the use of kinetic energy of particles with mass, characterised in that The powdered material (102) is transported onto an already printed object part (1000) or a conductive needle (115) with the use of an electrostatic pull between the conductive needle (115) and powdered material (102) wherein the electrostatic pull is created with an electrical connection of a higher electric potential (Wi) via a switch (112) to the conductive needle (115) or with an electric connection of a lower electric potential (W2) via switch (113) to the conductive needle (115) and wherein the conductive needle (115) is connected electrically to the surface of the already printed object part (1000).

19. Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional objects according to claim 15 and/or claim 16 and/or claim 17, characterised in that:

the powdered material (102) is transported onto an already printed object part (1000) with the use of a vector sum of momentum of particles emitted from two or more spatially arranged sources (11, 12) and which creates a push force onto the powdered material (102);

the powdered material (102) is transported onto already printed object part (1000) or onto conductive needle (115) with the use of electrostatic pull created with electrical connection of a higher electrical potential (Wi) via a switch (113) to the conductive needle (115) and wherein the conductive needle (115) is electrically connected to the surface of the already printed object part (1000);

excessive electric charge is removed from surface of the already printed object part (1000) via a switch (111) creating an electrical connection between the conductive needle (115) or the already printed object part (1000) and a ground connection or a point with a lower electrical potential (W2) or a point with higher electrical potential (Wi).

20. Method according to claim 15, characterised in that an individual curved print volume (1,2,3...Z) in a sequence (51) is assembled from a plurality of smaller print volumes (157,1570).

21. Method according to claim 20, characterised in that the plurality of smaller curved print volumes (157, 1570) assembling the individual print volume (1,2,3...Z) in the sequence (51) is fabricated in multiple printing directions at the same time.

22. Method according to claim 15, characterised in that an individual curved print volume (152) in a sequence (51) can be in the interior of a next print volume (153) in the sequence (51).

23. Method according to claim 15, characterised in that the a surface of individual curved print volume (155) in a sequence (51) touches the surface of a next individual curved print volume (1570) in sequence (51).